Saturday, December 5, 2009

[−] Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics and Computational biology are interdisciplinary fields of research, development and application of algorithms, computational and statistical methods for management and analysis of biological data, and for solving basic biological problems.
[−] Bioinformatics
[+] Bioinformaticists
[+] Bioinformatics algorithms
[+] Bioinformatics companies
[+] Bioinformatics software
[+] Biological sequence format
[+] Bioinformatics databases
[+] Microarrays
[+] Omics
[+] Bioinformatics organizations
[+] Phylogenetics
[+] Systems biology
[+] Theoretical biologists
[+] Theoretical biology
[+] Bioinformatics stubs

Biostatistics journals

Biostatistics journals
Pharmaceutical Statistics
Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology

Related fields
Biostatistics shares several methods with quantitative fields such as:
operations research,
computer science,
econometrics, and
mathematical demography

See also
Quantitative parasitology
Ecological forecasting
Group size measures

Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
Statistics in Medicine
The International Journal of Biostatistics
Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Biometrical Journl
Genetics Selection Evolution

Applications of Biostatistics

Applications of biostatistics
Public health, including epidemiology, health services research, nutrition, and environmental health
Design and analysis of clinical trials in medicine
Genomics, population genetics, in order to link variation in genotype with a variation in phenotype. This has been used in agriculture to improve crops and farm animals (animal breeding). In biomedical research, this work can assist in finding candidates for gene that can cause or influence predisposition to disease in human genetics
Ecology, ecological forecasting
Biological sequence analysis
Statistical methods are beginning to be integrated into medical informatics, public health informatics, and bioinformatics

Biostatistics/history of biological thought

Biostatistics (a combination of the words biology and statistics; sometimes referred to as biometry or biometrics) is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. The science of biostatistics encompasses the design of biological experiments, especially in medicine and agriculture; the collection, summarization, and analysis of data from those experiments; and the interpretation of, and inference from, the results.
Biostatistics and the history of biological thought
Biostatistical reasoning and modeling were of critical importance to the foundation theories of modern biology. In the early 1900s, after the rediscovery of Mendel's work, the conceptual gaps in understanding between genetics and evolutionary Darwinism led to vigorous debate between biometricians such as Walter Weldon and Karl Pearson and Mendelians such as Charles Davenport, William Bateson and Wilhelm Johannsen. By the 1930s statisticians and models built on statistical reasoning had helped to resolve these differences and to produce the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis.
These individuals and the work of other biostatisticians, mathematical biologists, and statistically inclined geneticists helped bring together evolutionary biology and genetics into a consistent, coherent whole that could begin to be quantitatively modeled.
In parallel to this overall development, the pioneering work of D'Arcy Thompson in On Growth and Form also helped to add quantitative discipline to biological study.
Despite the fundamental importance and frequent necessity of statistical reasoning, there may nonetheless have been a tendency among biologists to distrust or deprecate results which are not qualitatively apparent. One anecdote describes Thomas Hunt Morgan banning the Frieden calculator from his department at Caltech, saying "Well, I am like a guy who is prospecting for gold along the banks of the Sacramento River in 1849. With a little intelligence, I can reach down and pick up big nuggets of gold. And as long as I can do that, I'm not going to let any people in my department waste scarce resources in placer mining. Educators are now adjusting their curricula to focus on more quantitative concepts and tools.

Sunday, November 15, 2009

Foraminifera,Mycetozoa,Myxogastridia and Dictyostelida

Foraminifera (forams)
Forams are all marine
Named for their porous shells
Hardened with calcium carbonate
Mycetozoa (Slime Molds)
Mycetozoa “fungus animals”
They decompose leaf litter like fungi
But they are not fungi
Use pseudopodia for movement
Two distinct groups
Plasmodial slime mold
Cellular slime mold
Myxogastridia (Plasmodial Slime Mold)
Most are brightly colored
All are heterotrophic
Life cycle contains:
Feeding stage (mobile)
Large mass of unicellular organisms that is not separate by cell walls
Fruiting body (not mobile)
Dictyostelida: Cellular Slime Mold
Feeding stage consists of individual cells
When food is scarce form an aggregate that functions as a unit

Rhodophyta its habits, Chlorophyta, and Rhizopoda

Rhodophyta: Red Algae
Have no flagellated life cycle stage
Not all are red
Most are multicellular
Also called seaweeds

Habit of Rhodophyta
l      Red aglae- lack flagellated stages in life cycle
l      Phycoerythin pigment
l      Marine and multicellular
l      Filamentous, delicately branched thalli (body)
l      Alternation of generations

Chlorophyta: (green algae)
Probably gave rise to land plants
Most are fresh water algae

l      Green algae –
l      have chloroplasts that resemble those of plants
l      Plants and green algae share common ancestor
l      Mostly fresh water
l      May be planktonic, inhabitants of damp soil, symbionts in other eukaryotes, or mutualistic partners with fungi (lichens)
l      Formation of colonies, repeated nuclear divisions to produce multinucleated filaments, and cell division and differentiation
l      Sexual and asexual staged life cycles
l      Some have alternation of generations

Diversity of protists use pseudopodia for movement
Most are heterotrophs and use pseuodpods to hunt for food
Unsure of their place in a phylogenetic tree
Rhizopoda (amoebas)
Actinopoda (heliozoans and radiolarians)
Actinopod means “ray foot”
Extensions of slender pseudopods
Heliozoans –
Fresh water habitat
Skeletons consist of silica


Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
Unique glasslike walls consisting of silica
Used in toothpastes and polishes

Detail of these topics is given in this link 

Chrysophyta (golden algae)
Named for their color
Typically biflagellated
Live among freshwater and marine plankton
Most are unicellular
Phaeophyta (brown algae)
Largest and most complex algae
All are multicellular
Called seaweeds

Alveolata,Dinoflagellata,Apicomplexa,Cilliophora (cilliates) and Stramenopila

Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates
All contain membrane bounded cavities (alveoli)
Abundant components of phytoplankton
Some are also heterotrophic
Contain plates of cellulose armor
Two or more flagella propel the protist
Cause Red tides
Pfiesteria piscicida is carnivorous
All are parasites of animals
Cilliophora (cilliates)
All use cilia to move around
Among the most complex of all cells
Includes heterotrophic groups as well as photosynthetic organismsAll have numerous fine, hairlike projections on the flagella


Contain flagellated Euglenoids and kinetoplastids
Mostly autotrophic
Contain mitochondria
And extranuclear DNA housed in a kinetoplast

l      Includes both photosynthetic and heterotrophic flagellates
l      Euglenoids- one or two flagella that emerge from an anterior chamber; storage of polymer paramylon.
l      Chlorophyll; lack cell walls
l      Some have a red eyespot

l      Kinetoplastid- single large mitochondrion that contains extranuclear DNA

Diplomonadida and Parabasala

Group that lacks mitochondria
Evolved before eukaryotes acquired mitochondria. But recent evidence may suggest that these groups actually lost their mitochondria
Multiple flagella.

Unicellular, flagellated, no chloroplasts or mitochondria
Anaerobic, use fermentation
Mutualistic or parasitic
Diplo’s have 2 nuclei (ex. Giardia)
Para’s have 1nuclei (ex. Trichomonas)

Giardia lamblia
Trichomona vaginalis
Two separate nuclei
l      Main Characteristic: Lack Mitochondria
l      However-presence of mitochondrial genes
l      Hypothesis that these groups lost mitochondria after diverged earliest in eukaryotic history
l      Diplomonads- i.e. Giardia lambia (intestinal parasite)-two nuclei, multiple flagella, simple cytoskeleton, no mitochondria or plastids

l      Parabasalids- called trichomonads, undulating membrane

Protistan Habitats,Origin of Eukaryotes,Endosymbiosis

Protistan Habitats
Most are aquatic. Make up plankton. Swim near waters surface. Some are symbiotic. From mutualism to parasitism. Malaria agent is protistan

Origin of Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes arise due to membrane bound nucleus, Endomembrane system, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Cytoskeleton, Multiple linear chromosomes and Complex life cycles

Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes through gradually increasing levels of complexity. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts share prokaryotic characteristics. Circular DNA. Replicate through binary fission

Motility and Life Cycle

Motility and Life Cycle
Most protists have cilia or flagella. Flagella are different in eukaryotic organisms than in prokaryotic organism. Mitosis occurs in almost all protists. Protists have complex life cycles. Some reproduce asexually


Protests are nutritionally diverse. Some are photoautotroph., heterotrophy and some are mixotrophs. Although nutrition is not used to classify protists.

Groups of Nutrition
We can split protists into three main groups.
1. Protozoa – animal like
2. Fungus like protits
3. Alga – plant like


Introduction to Protists
Most protests are unicellular. Some are complex multicultural like the seaweeds. The 5 Kingdom system doesn’t work for Protests either. We classified protests based on they were eukaryotic but not plants, animals, or fungi.

Diversity of Protests
Recent systematic studies have split the once 1 kingdom Protest into many kingdoms. Protests are very complex. They must carry out all the requirements of life in a single cell

Organizations for Breeding

Organizations for Breeding
Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Australia,
Roslin Institute, Scotland,
Animal Breeding, Genetics & Genomics, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, USA,
Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, USA,
Animal Genetics and Breeding Unit, Australia,

Journals for Breeding

Journals for Breeding

Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, ISSN 0931-2668,

Academic centers for Breeding

Academic centers for Breeding

Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, Netherlands,
Animal Breeding and Genetics Group, University of Georgia, USA,
Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, University of Guelph, Canada,
Animal Breeding & Genetics, Cornell University, USA,
Animal Breeding & Genetics, Iowa State University, USA,
Breeding and Genetics Program, Colorado State University, USA,
Animal Genetics and Breeding Unit, University of New England, Australia,

External links for Breeding

External links for Breeding
Animal Breeding - The Genetic Basis Of Animal Breeding, Economic Considerations, Modern Methods In Biotechnology, Artificial Insemination,
Guidelines For Uniform Swine Improvement Programs, National Swine Improvement Federation, 2003,

References For Breeding

References For Breeding

Evans JW. Horse Breeding and Management, p. 228.
Backyard breeders: The elephant in the room. Examiner.
Rescue groups paint a sad story of Iowa’s puppy mills. The Messenger.

Honors and awards for Breeding

Honors and awards for Breeding

National Association of Animal Breeders Award, American Dairy Science Association
Jay L. Lush Animal Breeding and Genetics Award, American Dairy Science Association
Since 1982
Fellowship of Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Since 1990
[edit] References
Lush, JL (1937). Animal Breeding Plans. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press.
Kempthorne, O (1957). Introduction to Statistic Genetics. John Wiley & Sons.
Van Vleck, L. D., & Searle, S. R. (1979). Variance components and animal breeding: proceedings of a conference in honor of C.R. Henderson. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University.
Henderson, CR (1984). Applications of linear models in animal breeding. Guelph, Ont: University of Guelph. ISBN 0-88955-030-1.
Hammond K. Gianola, D (1990). Advances in Statistical Methods for Genetic Improvement of Livestock (Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences). Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K. ISBN 3-540-50809-0.
Massey, JW and Vogt, DW (1993), Heritability and Its Use in Animal Breeding, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri,
Mrode, R. A. (1996). Linear models for the prediction of animal breeding values. Oxon: CAB International. ISBN 0-85198-996-9.
Cameron, N. D. (1997). Selection indices and prediction of genetic merit in animal breeding. Oxon: CAB International. ISBN 0-85199-169-6.

Purebred breeding

Purebred breeding Definition

Mating animals of the same breed for maintaining such breed is referred to as purebred breeding.

Purebred breeding Explanation

Opposite to the practice of mating animals of different breeds, purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits, that animals will pass to the next generation. By "breeding the best to the best," employing a certain degree of inbreeding, considerable culling, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline or "breed" superior in certain respects to the original base stock.
Such animals can be recorded with a breed registry, the organisation that maintains pedigrees and/or stud books.
The observable phenomenon of hybrid vigor stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity.

Breeding stock

Breeding stock Definition

"Breeding stock" is used to describe a group of animals used for purpose of planned breeding.

Breeding stock Explanation

When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred animals, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, when breeding swine the "breeding stock should be sound, fast growing, muscular, lean, and reproductively efficient. The "subjective selection of breeding stock" in horses has led to many horse breeds with particular performance traits.

Types of breeding

Types of breeding

  • Breeding stock
  • Purebred breeding

Animal breeding

Animal breeding

Animal breeding Definition

Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation of the genetic value of domestic livestock.

Animal breeding Explanation

Selecting animals for breeding in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or have other desirable traits has revolutionized agricultural livestock production throughout the world. The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics and statistics.

Sunday, October 18, 2009

Dewali Hindu Festival (Deya Jala)

Dewali Hindu Festival (Deya Jala)

Dewali is Hindu festival. In this festival DEYA JALYA Jalaty hain.having want to lighting every where and use different crackers to celebrate their happiness.

They have celebrate with colors and dance and singing song . the have celebrate this events five days of the week.

They celebrate this event annually. They have great joy and fun and use crackers and blows. This event may celebrate all over the world where Hindu lives.

Specially in India this event may celebrate with great passion because there is great populations of Hindu in this country.

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Thursday, October 15, 2009


Bot. 526 BIOSTATISTICS III (1+3): 2Sampling techniques. Tests of normality, independence and homogeneity of variance. Transformations. Analysis of frequencies. Multiple and partial correlation and regression. Miscellaneous methods: combining probabilities from tests of significance. Randomization tests. Use of computer packages for data analysis


Basic concepts. The completely randomized design. Randomized complete blocks. The Latin Square design. Factorial designs: 2X2 and 3X2 factorials. The split-blot and split-split plot (Nested) designs.


Bot. 5214 GENETIC ENGINEERING (2+3): 3Introduction. Definition of the science and it’s basic problems,. Solutions to the problems: Restriction and restriction mapping of genomes. Methods of gene isolation: from genomes, mRNA, immunological methods. Gel electrophoresis: Gel electrophoresis as a preparative and a diagnostic method. Ligation: enzymes, adaptors, methodologies. Gene sequencing. Cloning Vectors: Natural and recombinant vectors, properties, selection. Gene Libraries: genomic and cDNA libraries. Gene amplification: cloning and PCR. Transformation and transgensis. Role of recombinant DNA technology in industry, agriculture and biotechnology. Objectives of transgensis of Plants: resistance to pests, pathogens, improvement of horticultural and crop plants. Production of important plant products.

Bot. 5213 SEED PATHOLOGY (1+3): 3

Bot. 5213 SEED PATHOLOGY (1+3): 3
Pathogenesis - Diseases - Hosts: Mechanisms of seed transmission . Principles of control: Seed health, testing methods, assessment of seed-borne inoculums.

Bot. 5112 MICROBIAL GENETICS (2+3): 3

Bot. 5112 MICROBIAL GENETICS (2+3): 3
Organization of bacterial genetic material : Chromosomes and plasmids. Classification of plasmids and their genetic characteristics: types of, molecular sizes, copy numbers, compatibility…etc. and an introductory treatment of the plasmid exclusion concept. Some aspects of bacterial plasmids in mitigation of environmental pollution, agriculture and industry. Host-directed restriction and modification: Definitions, classification and nomenclature of enzymes, mode of action and importance. Gene expression in bacteria: Negative and positive controls. Examples of inducible and repressible operons.

Bot. 5111 PLANT PATHOLOGY (1+3):

Bot. 5111 PLANT PATHOLOGY (1+3): 2Historical introduction to plant pathology. Classification of symptoms of plant disease. Relation of environment to disease development. Dispersal of plant pathogens. Control of plant diseases. Study of some plant diseases: Fungal diseases, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, nematode diseases, protozoan diseases and diseases caused by mycoplasmas


Introduction: Microbial growth processes, culture media, growth conditions, culture assay and kinetics of growth. Biochemistry and Physiology of Micro-organisms: Microbial exo- and end-enzymes, strategies for energy transfer, microbial photosynthesis, regulation ad control of metabolic pathways. Fermentation Techniques: Strain selection, isolation and preservation, improvement of strains used in industrial processes. Culturing techniques. Optimization and monitoring of industrial processes. Food Microbiology: Food preservation methods, spoilage and food poisoning. Processes involved in: production of indigenous fermented foods, industry, production of economically important products. Environmental Microbiology: The role of micro-organisms in biogeochemical processes, cycling of elements and impact on soil fertility. Biodegradation management and Biodegradation enhancement. Microorganisms as indicators of water and air pollution: Treatment of Sewage, industrial effluents and pollutants. Micro-organisms as agents of diseases in : Animals, plants and humans. Micro-organisms as tools of research and in genetic engineering and transgensis of plants.

Bot. 526 BIOSTATISTICS III (1+3): 2

Bot. 526 BIOSTATISTICS III (1+3): 2
Sampling techniques. Tests of normality, independence and homogeneity of variance. Transformations. Analysis of frequencies. Multiple and partial correlation and regression. Miscellaneous methods: combining probabilities from tests of significance. Randomization tests. Use of computer packages for data analysis.


Basic concepts. The completely randomized design. Randomized complete blocks. The Latin Square design. Factorial designs: 2X2 and 3X2 factorials. The split-blot and split-split plot (Nested) designs.


Differences between Ecology and Palaeoecology. Philosophical principles of Palaeoecology and the nature of Palaeoecological evidence. Pollen analysis as an important evidence: The fate of the pollen grain from the flower to the slide. Laboratory techniques of pollen analysis. Pollen grain morphology. New frontiers in pollen analysis. Practicals: Study of prepared slides to show variations in pollen grain types. Preparation of slides from: Sediments., honey, animal remains& others.

Bot. 518 PLANT TASXONOMY III (2+3): 3

Bot. 518 PLANT TASXONOMY III (2+3): 3
Cytotaxonomy: Karyotpic analysis, mutations, polyploidy and hybridization, apomixes( their application to taxonomy). Numerical taxonomy: Introduction, methods of analysis, species relationships and variations. Chemotaxonomy: Introduction. Use and limitations. Survey of some common compounds found in plants and their relevance to families, genera or species where they occur. Practicals: Karyotpic analysis and chemical analysis of some plant families. Application of numerical methods in the study of variations.

Bot. 517 APPLIED ECOLOGY (2+3): 3

Bot. 517 APPLIED ECOLOGY (2+3): 3
Natural resources(Traditional). Plant production systems: Range/Agriculture/ Forestry. Non-conventional resources: Saline habitats, seas and oceans. Marginal/Arid habitats: Feasible ways to exploit- remote sensing-. Economic plants: Medicinal plants, gum timber, oil etc. Conservation and biodiversity: Ozone, acid rain …etc. Sociology: Human migration. Ecological equilibrium. Data documentation. Co-operatuion and linkages with other sciences.

Bot. 526 BIOSTATISTICS III (1+3): 2

Bot. 526 BIOSTATISTICS III (1+3): 2
Sampling techniques. Tests of normality, independence and homogeneity of variance. Transformations. Analysis of frequencies. Multiple and partial correlation and regression. Miscellaneous methods: combining probabilities from tests of significance. Randomization tests. Use of computer packages for data analysis.


Basic concepts. The completely randomized design. Randomized complete blocks. The Latin Square design. Factorial designs: 2X2 and 3X2 factorials. The split-blot and split-split plot (Nested) designs.


Introduction: History of plant and cell tissue culture. Basic Techniques and procedures: Types of culture from plant cells, tissues and organs, induction of callus, differentiation and morphogenesis, regeneration of plants from tissue culture. Molecular basis of regeneration: Meristem culture, embryo culture, anther culture and haploid production. Cell culture: Isolation and culture of protoplasts, somatic hybridization and genetic engineering. Tissue culture and nitrogen fixation. The role of tissue culture in basic and applied research: Production of virus free plants, improvement of productivity and propagation of useful plants. Tissue culture as a classical technique of plant improvement.


Introduction: Historical background on medicinal and aromatic plants (Egyptians, Arabs and Muslims and Red Indians). Introduction to the plant Kingdom: Classification of of plants into: Medicinal, aromatic and poisonous plants including; scientific description of the plants, common names in Sudan and other countries, propagation of medicinal and aromatic plants. Collection and identification of medicinal plants resources: Cultivation in different substrata, climatic zones …etc of exotic and wild species of commercial interest. Introductory studies on selected examples. Genetic improvement of some genera. Phytochemical studies on medicinal plants. Chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants. Effective principles extracted from medicinal plants. Aromatic plants: Common aromatic plants in Sudan/ other countries. Plant parts commonly used; seeds, leaves, wood …etc. Poisonous plants.


Bot. 511 BIOCHEMISTRY V (2+3): 3
Sucrose and starch metabolism in plants: Synthesis versus degradation pathways- synthesis of cellulose, pectic substances and other cell wall polysaccharides. Lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis of fatty acids- Biosynthesis of proteins: Stages of protein synthesis in the ribosome. Regulation of metabolism: Compartmentalization of enzymes. Alternate pathways for metabolism of a substrate. Kinetic factors. Control of enzyme concentration by regulation of transcription and translation. Allosteric enzymes. Some important biological carriers.

Introduction. Classification of natural products. Methods of collection of natural plant products: Separation and purification of secondary natural plant products. Identification of chemical structure of secondary compounds. Physical methods. Chemical methods. Biosynthesis of natural products in plants: Terpenes and steroids. Alkaloids. Natural Phenolic compounds.

Bot. 415 PLANT TAXONOMY II (2+6): 4

Bot. 415 PLANT TAXONOMY II (2+6): 4
Reproduction: Sexual and asexual reproduction, Apomictic reproduction. Breeding systems: Out breeding and inbreeding, hybridization, factors affecting hybridization; using examples of important plants. Geographical isolation in relation to speciation: Polyploidy and it’s taxonomic treatment, Origin of species. Study of important crops in Sudan. Practicals: Taxonomic studies of important monocotyledonous plants e.g. The gramminae. Reproduction in plants: Study of different methods of reproduction, construction of taxonomic keys to differentiate between species.

Bot. 414 MICROBIOLOGY(Bacteriology) III (2+3): 3

Bot. 414 MICROBIOLOGY(Bacteriology) III (2+3): 3
Introduction: General characteristics of prokaryotes. Prokaryotic cell structure and functions. Cultural characteristics and shapes of bacterial cells. Bacterial growth, nutrition and metabolism: Factors influencing bacterial growth, the concept of asepsis. Bacterial genetics: recombination and plasmids. The control of bacteria: Chemical, physical and biological means of control. Classification of bacteria : Classification according to Bergy`s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Survey of bacterial groups with emphasis on the structure and characteristics of econ9omically important groups. Effect of bacteria on the environment. Fermentation Techniques: Fermentation and importance of bacteria in biotechnology.

Bot. 413 ECOLOGY II (2+3): 3

Bot. 413 ECOLOGY II (2+3): 3
Introduction: Sources of ecological knowledge. A. Evolution of Global ecosystems: Ancient and present. B. Environmental changes: Abiotic ( physical changes), biotic activities; mainly human. Negative changes: e.g. pollution/ overexploitation of natural resources. Positive changes: Advances in science and technology, genetics and control of epidemic diseases. Energy: Alternative sources; sun, wind. C. Strategic programs for disasters and risks evasion: New approaches to monitor and evaluate magnitudes of changes in: Social settings, quantitative and qualitative competition, degradation, density, dynamics. Prominent changes with: Local, regional and global impact; 1. Salinity/ loss of fertility/ fire. 2. Epidemics/ pests/ atomic residues/ desertification and drought. 3. Water and air pollution/ green-house effect.

Bot. 412 BIOCHEMISTRY IV (2+3): 3

Bot. 412 BIOCHEMISTRY IV (2+3): 3
Metabolism: Definitions, principles of metabolism, forms of energy, high energy, bioenergetics, formation of ATP in living cells, mechanisms of ATP action. Biological oxidation: Glycolysis, Kreb`s cycle. Biological techniques: Principles in biological techniques, methods in instrumental analysis, methods of separation( different chromatographic methods: thin layer, paper, column, gas, electrophoresis …etc). Electron transport systems: Systems and oxidative phosphorylation, hexose monophosphate shunt.

Bot. 411 BIOCHEMISTRY III (2+3): 3

Bot. 411 BIOCHEMISTRY III (2+3): 3
Amino Acids: Protein and non-protein amino acids. Structure, formulae, physical properties, reactions, titration, stereoisomerism, ionic properties, general and specific tests.
Proteins: Structure, peptide synthesis, peptide bond, classification, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. Solubility, fractionation, analysis, precipitation, colour and non-colour tests. Biological importance.
Nucleic Acids: Occurrence, ribose and deoxyribose nucleic acids, nitrogenous bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, Primary, secondary and tertiary structure of DNA, structure of RNA. Structure of RNA. Biological importance. Enzymes: Definitions, nature, nomenclature, classification, zymogens, isoenzymes, co-enzymes and vitamins, specificity, activity. Purification, reaction order, kinetics.

Bot. 325 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY II (2+3): 3

Bot. 325 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY II (2+3): 3
Mineral nutrition in plants: Introduction, mineral absorption, membrane equilibrium (Donan equilibrium). Mass flow: active absorption and carrier concept. Essential and beneficial elements: macro-elements, microelements, available forms, functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic effects of mineral elements: mineral antagonism, salt requirement, Translocation in plants: Introduction- principal substances trans-located- xylem translocation- phloem translocation. Transpiration- cohesion theory- root pressure. Mechanisms: The pressure-flow hypothesis- The cytoplasmic streaming hypothesis- The activated diffusion hypothesis.

Bot. 324 MICROBIOLOGY II ( Algae) (1+3): 2

Bot. 324 MICROBIOLOGY II ( Algae) (1+3): 2
Introduction: ecological distribution of algae- historical background of algal classification. Modern trends in algal taxonomy: study of selected examples from algal classes to illustrate the diversity of structure, reproductive methods, life cycles and economic importance. Emphasis is made on classes Chlorophyta, Bacillarophyta and Phaeophyta. Culture and gGrowth of algae: isolation and purification methods for some algal species.
Laboratory training:
Laboratory training comprises: morphological studies of selected examples from different orders and classes, methods of collection, preservation and identification of algae. Use of taxonomic keys and taxonomic references. Methods of isolation and culturing of algae as a basic tool in laboratory training.

Bot. 323 GENETICS II (1+3):2

Bot. 323 GENETICS II (1+3):2
Microbial Genetics. Genetic recombination in bacteria: transformation, general transduction, specialized transduction, abortive transduction, sex-duction. Analysis of f recombinants as a means for mapping bacterial chromosomes. Genetic recombination in Fungi: analysis of ordered and non-ordered tetrads, mapping of fungal chromosomes.

Bot. 322 ECOLOGY I (2+6): 4

Bot. 322 ECOLOGY I (2+6): 4
Climatic factors: their effect on vegetation and as limiting factors in terrestrial plants distribution. Vegetation belts(biomes): global-vegetation belts in Sudan. Field trips: elucidation of some vegetation types e.g. smi-arid in north Khartoum State- The Sunut Forest etc. Practicals: Field studies to elucidate plant modifications in response to climate, use of instruments and devices to measure climatic variables.

Bot. 321 BIOCHEMISTRY II (1+3):2

Bot. 321 BIOCHEMISTRY II (1+3):2
Biological Membranes (biomembranes): Introduction, surfaces and intersurfaces. Chemical composition: lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Structure of membranes, physico-chemical techniques, isolation of membranes. Morphology and interaction of different biological membranes: plasma membrane, mitochondrion, chloroplast, mesosome, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, tonoplast, nucleus and other membranes. Membrane transport of: non-electrolytes, transport of ions, transport of water. Transport by special mechanisms: receptor and ligand interaction.

Bot. 316 PLANT TAXONOMY I (1+3): 2

Bot. 316 PLANT TAXONOMY I (1+3): 2
Introduction: identification and nomenclature of plants. Taxonomic criteria: use of taxonomic characters in classification of plants- Deme terminology- The use of keys- Herbarium in identification of plants- Systems of classification. Practical : the use and construction of taxonomic keys in identification of plants. Field trips to selected areas.

Bot. 315 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY I (1+3): 2

Bot. 315 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY I (1+3): 2
Plant-water Relationships: A. Water and plants- classification of plants according to water availability- water cycle- the role of water in plants- water content of plants. B. Chemical and physical properties of water. C. Water and soil: soil properties- soil water- water movement in the soil- determination of soil-water content. D. Cell-water relationships: cell structure- Terminology in plant-water relationships: Plasmolysis- cell permeability-water movement within the cell- determination of water potential component in plants. E. Water movement to the plant: Root structure- movement of water to the xylem- factors affecting water absorption- the ascent of sap in the xylem. F. Loss of water from the plant: Transpiration- leaf anatomy- transpiring surfaces- stomata- measurement of transpiration- factors affecting the rate of transpiration.

Bot. 314 MICROBIOLOGY I (2+6): 4

Bot. 314 MICROBIOLOGY I (2+6): 4
1. Introduction: Position of Fungi in The Five Kingdom concept. Comparison between: bacteria, Algae and Fungi, cellular structure, genomic composition and nutrition. 2.Kingdom Fungi: Occurrence, importance, structure, Myxomycota, Eumycota, unicellular yeast.
3. Nutrition: Saprophytes and parasites, economic importance, environmental importance. Nutritional requirements. Fungal physiology: Effects of : humidity, temperature oxygen and pH. Importance: Plant diseases, industry, scientific research. 5.Growth and sexual and asexual reproduction, their importance. 6. Classification according to Ainsworth,1973: Kingdom- Divisions: Myxomycota, Eumycota, Ssub-divisions: Oomycetes, Zygomcetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, hyphomyctes. Selected examples to study the structure of a representative of each of the sub-division. Examples to elucidate theoretical, economic , scientific importance. Classification to species level.

Bot. 313 GENETICS I (1+3): 2

Bot. 313 GENETICS I (1+3): 2
Chromosomal variations: their origin and cytological behaviour during meiosis, effect on fertility, gene expression and speciation. Cytoplasmic inheritance and maternal effects. Genetic constitution of populations: Hardy-Weinberg Law, factors affecting gene frequency and equilibrium. Variation of gene frequencies under simplified and less simplified conditions. Continuous variation- values and means of a population. Inbreeding depression and heterosis. Genetic analysis: analysis of morphological characters and their use in chromosome mapping in dihybrid and trihybrid crosses. Tetrad analysis in Fungi.

Bot. 311 BIOCHEMISTRY I (2+3): 3Bot. 312 BIOSTATISTICS I (2+3): 3

Bot. 311 BIOCHEMISTRY I (2+3): 3
Carbohydrates and lipids: Nature, classification, occurrence, structure. Role in plants: Biological functions in living organisms, examples of and detailed study of structure and function, their biochemical reactions in living organisms.

Bot. 312 BIOSTATISTICS I (2+3): 3
Descriptive statistics: Measures of location (central tendency): mean, median, mode. Measures of Dispersion: Variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation. Principles of Probability Theory: Probability distributions: normal distribution, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, t-distribution, F-distribution, Chi-square ( χ2 ) distribution.

Bio. 223 INVERTIBRATES (1+3):2

Bio. 223 INVERTIBRATES (1+3):2
Introduction to taxonomy: Classification of invertebrates. Phylum Protozoa, Porifera, Colelentrata, Mollusca, Platyhelmintha, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata. Study of examples from different phyla: Biology, structure and function. Inter-relations between organisms and their environments.


The Evolution of Life. The Concept of the Six Kingdoms of Life: its relation to plant systematics. The Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi and Algae. Non-vascular plants: Hepaticophyta, Anthocerotophyta, Bryophyta. Vascular Plants: Seedless vascular plants: Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, Pterophyta. Vascular Seed Plants ( Angiosperms): Anthophyta: Monocotyledonous plants, Dicotyledonous plants. Evolutionary trends in the plant Kingdom.


Mendelian Principles: Gene interaction, lethal genes, environmental effects on gene expression. Sex determination and sex linkage. General linkage and gene mapping in diploids ( dihybrid crosses). Molecular genetics: Structure and replication of the genetic material. The genetic code. Gene mutations: Chemical, physical and biological mutagens. Mutagenic agents and human activities. Co-linearity between DNA nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence.


Environmental Factors: Factors interaction. Factors interdependence. Climatic factors: Light as an environmental factor. Temperature. Topography. Water and humidity. Biotic factors: Animal and plant interactions. Plant/ plant interactions. Competition. Human impact. Edaphic factors: What is soil? Soil composition, humus. Chemical composition of soil. Plant succession: Primary succession, secondary succession, climax.


Introduction: Gametogenesis. Early embryonic development (Cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation and organogenesis) of Amphioxus, frog, Chicken and a placental mammal. Regeneration, artificial production of twins, embryo storage ad transfer, cloning.
PLANT ANATOMY. Introduction: Plant anatomy and growing plants. Differentiation, totipotency, polarity, pattern formation and unequal cell divisions, factors controlling differentiation. The plant cell content and ergastic substances: The cell wall, components and structure of the cell wall, intercellular spaces, Plasmodesmata. Cells and tissues: Parenchyma, and collenchyma, sclerenchyma. Fibers, their origin and development, economic use. Cambium and pteridium. Epidermis: root and aerial parts. Trichoplasts, cuticle, silica, cork and crystal cells. Stomata: their distribution, types, structure and formation. Xylem: Its origin and fine structure, phylogeny, genetic aspects. Phloem: Sieve elements, control of phloem differentiation, transfer cells, secretory structures, economic importance of plant secretions. Secretory cells and tissues: Classification, mechanism and purpose of secretion. Stem: Arrangement of tissues, development of steles. Leaf: Structure, development, relationship with reference to function and environment. Root: Structure and function, mycorrhizae, root nodules and nitrogen fixation. Ecological anatomy: Study of roots, stems and leaves of hydrophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes. Economic aspects of applied plant anatomy.

Bio. 122 Diversity Of Life III: (3+3): 4

Bio. 122 Diversity Of Life III: (3+3): 4
Introducing Animalia: Characteristics of major divisions, origin of multicellularity. Characteristics, diversity, structure and functions, adaptations, importance of Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nemartina, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata. Comparative functional anatomy of Vertebrates: Characteristics and classification of chordates, structure and function of vertebrate body systems.

Bio.121 Diversity of Life II (3+3):4

Bio.121 Diversity of Life II (3+3):4
Plant Biology. Major plant Characteristics, origin of multicellularity, basic plant life cycles. Bryophyta: Characteristics, life cycle. Pteridophyta: Characteristics, support and transport, life cycle. Seed plants: Origin, characteristics, major subdivisions. Gymnosperms: Characteristics, classification, reproduction, importance. Anthophyta (= Angiosperms): Plant morphology: structure, gross functions and modifications of leaves, stems and roots. Plant nutrition, transport and support. Reproduction, development, and growth- hormones and growth regulation. Diversity of flowering plants- importance.

Bio. 112 Diversity Of Life I (3+3): 4

Bio. 112 Diversity Of Life I (3+3): 4
Biology of Lower Forms of Life. Origin of Life: Formation of solar system and planet earth, a biogenesis and biopoiesis. Introduction to classical taxonomy: Definition, methods (homology and phylogeny), activities ( classification, nomenclature, identification), definition of species, taxonomic hierarchy, the Five Kingdom Concept. Characteristics, classification, life activities, importance, evolution of Viruses, Viroids, Monera, Protesta and Fungi.

Bio. 111 Biological Concepts. (3+3): 4.

Bio. 111 Biological Concepts. (3+3): 4.
Introducing Biology: Science: Definition, philosophy, methods, classification. Biology: definition, branches. Life on earth: origin, conditions necessary for life.
Chemical Basis of Life: Chemical bonds, water: hydrogen bonds, properties, dissociation, acids and bases, pH scale, buffers, importance to life. Organic Molecules: Carbon, functional groups, monomers and polymers, chemical structure, properties, classification and gross functions of : carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Energetics of Chemical Reactions: the first and second laws of thermodynamics, free energy, factors affecting the rates of chemical reactions. Enzymes: Definition, nomenclature, function, properties, regulation of enzyme activity, cofactors and metabolic pathways. Glycolysis and cellular respiration: ATP, oxidation-reduction reactions, phosphorylation, Glycolysis and anaerobic pathways, oxidation of pyruvate, Kreb`s cycle, electron transport chain, mitochondrial membranes and chemiosmosis. Catabolic pathways of : starch, fats and proteins. Photosynthesis: nature of light and the spectrum electromagnetic radiation, absorption spectrum of chlorophyll, chloroplasts and thylakoid membranes, photosynthetic pigments, light dependent reactions, electron flow in photo-system (I) and (II), Phosphorylation, light independent reactions, photorespiration, C 3 and C 4 plants, importance of photosynthesis to life on earth.
Introduction to cytology ad cyto-physiology: The cell theory, methods of studying cells, main types of cells( prokaryotic, eukaryotic, animal plant), structural components of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, their gross functions. Cell size, plasma membrane ( fluid mosaic model), movement of material into and out of cells, linkage and communication between cells, wall and glyocalyx, cell movements( creeping, gliding, swimming, cytoplasmic streaming).

Bot. 425 MICROBIOLOGY VI (2+3): 3Bot. 426 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY III (3+6): 5

Bot. 425 MICROBIOLOGY VI (2+3): 3
Principles of plant pathology. Introduction: parasitism and development of disease. Mechanisms of disease formation: Mechanisms of infection by pathogenic organisms, effect of pathogenesis on physiological functions of plants, mechanisms of defence in plants. Genetics as related to plant pathology: Resistance, susceptibility and tolerance, environmental influence on development of infective plant diseases. Host-parasite relationships: Concept of plant/microbe interactions, disease formation and host/parasite systems. Molecular genetics of pathogenesis: Molecular mechanisms in disease formation, molecular genetics methods in identification of parasites. Regulation of parasite enzymes and its role in disease formation, plant parasite interactions. The role of hydrolytic enzymes in plant resistance to disease formation, partial response of plants to disease, molecular responses to disease, genetic and molecular aspects of resistance in response to infection or chemical substances, tumor formation in plants, parasitic flowering plants.

Bot. 426 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY III (3+6): 5
Growth and development in plants. Introduction: Growth processes; germination of seeds, seed types and chemical composition of seeds. Seed dormancy and methods of breaking seed dormancy. Economical, ecological and developmental importance of seed dormancy. Differentiation: Introduction- Principles of molecular differentiation. Growth movements: Tropisms and other growth movements resulting from external stimuli. Phytochrome and plant growth: Responses of plants to phytochromes during growth. Reproductive growth: The life-cycle of flowering plants- the flowering process, photoperiodism and vernalization. Senescence and death. Control and co-ordination in plants. Plant growth hormones: Introduction- Growth factors- The chemistry of major groups of plant hormones: Auxins, Gibberelins, Cytokinins. Phenolic inhibitors and Abscisic acid. Ethylene, Polyamines. Metabolic pathways: Biosynthesis, destruction(oxidation), inactivation …etc). Transport and it’s role in controlling growth and development- Synthetic plant growth substances. Stress physiology: A. Water stress: Morphological changes resulting from water stress, physiological responses to water stress. B. Heat stress. C. Nutrients stress. D. Disease stress.

Bot. 423 GENETICS III (2+3): 3Bot. 424 MICROBIOLOGY V (Virology) (2+3): 3

Bot. 423 GENETICS III (2+3): 3
Molecular genetics: Physical, chemical and biological evidence that DNA is the genetic material, the genetic dogma. Structures of DNA and RNAs: Macro and micro organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene Mutations: Types of mutations, mutagenic agents, mechanism of action of some mutagens, classification of mutations at the molecular level, some aspects of the environmental effects of mutagens and their importance. Replication of DNA: Replication in prokaryotes, eukaryotes and some models for replication of viral genetic material. DNA Repair: Repair of errors of replication and mutations, revertants in genetic analysis. Gene Expression: Regulation of Gene Expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Introduction to recombinant DNA technology.

Bot. 424 MICROBIOLOGY V (Virology) (2+3): 3
Viruses: Introduction, history and general properties, cultivation, purification and assays. Virions: structure and size, helical, icosahedral capsids, viral envelopes and enzymes. Viral genetic material: DNA and RNA viruses. Principles of virus taxonomy: Bacterial viruses: Reproduction of DNA phages and lytic cycles, reproduction of RNA viruses and lysogeny. Animal viruses: Classification and reproduction. Plant viruses: Taxonomy, reproduction and transmission. Viruses of : insects, fungi and algae. Viroids and prions.

Bot. 423 GENETICS III (2+3): 3

Bot. 423 GENETICS III (2+3): 3

Molecular genetics: Physical, chemical and biological evidence that DNA is the genetic material, the genetic dogma. Structures of DNA and RNAs: Macro and micro organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene Mutations: Types of mutations, mutagenic agents, mechanism of action of some mutagens, classification of mutations at the molecular level, some aspects of the environmental effects of mutagens and their importance. Replication of DNA: Replication in prokaryotes, eukaryotes and some models for replication of viral genetic material. DNA Repair: Repair of errors of replication and mutations, revertants in genetic analysis. Gene Expression: Regulation of Gene Expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Introduction to recombinant DNA technology.

Bot. 422 ECOLOGY III (2+3):3

Bot. 422 ECOLOGY III (2+3):3

Feasible solutions for environmental problems. Public awareness, field and laboratory approaches. Population dynamics in plants and animals. Field trip (10 days) outside Khartoum State.

Bot. 421 BIOSTASTICS II (2+3): 3

Bot. 421 BIOSTASTICS II (2+3): 3

Sampling and sampling distributions. Inferential statistics. Tests of hypotheses: using z and t tests to compare sample and population means. Use of G and χ2 in tests of association and goodness of fit. Principles and methods of analysis of variance: (ANOVA) and methods of comparisons of means. Linear correlation and regression. The analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). Non-parametric statistical methods.

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Edition): for General ZOOLOGY

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Edition): for General ZOOLOGY

1. Watson, J.D., Hopkin, N.H, Roberts, J.W., Streitz, J.A. and Weiner, M.A.
(1990). Molecular Biology of the Gene. Benjamin, California.
2. Turner, P.C., Mclennon, A.G., Bates, A.D. and White, M.R.H. (1998).
3. Karp G. (2002). Cell and Molecular Biology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New
4. Twyman. R.M. (1998). Advanced Molecular Biology. Bios Scientific
5. Weaver R.F. (1999). Molecular Biology, WCB/McGraw-Hill New York.
6. Adams, R.L.P., Knowler, J.T. and Leader, D.P. (1986). The Biochemistry of
the Nucleic Acids. Champan and Hall.
7. Cell and Molecular Biology (8th Edition) De – Robbertis & De Robertis
8. Modern Genetics by Ayala, F.J. and Kiger, JaA.Jr.
9. Loewy, A.G. and Siekevitz. Cell structure and function, Holt Rinehart N.Y.
10. Levine, R.P. Genetics. Holt Rinehart and Winston, N.Y.
11. Robert F. Weaver, Philip W. Hedick, Basic Genetics.WCB.
12. Generald Karp, Cell and Molecular Biology, John Weley & sons.
13. Strickberger, M.W., Genetics. McMillan Co., New York.
14. Winchester, A.M. Genetics. Haugton-Miffin Co.
15. Scheeler, P. and Bianchi, D., Cell and Molecular Biology.
16. Gagong, W.F. 1987, Prentice Hall, Inc. Review of Medical Physiology.
17. Gordon M.S., Bartholomew, G.A. Grinnel A.D., Jorgensen, C.B.., and F.N.,
Animal Physiology: Principles and Adaptations, N.Y.
18. Guyton, A.C., Textbook of Medical Physiology, W.B. Saunders Company,
19. Prosser, C.L. Comparative Animal Physiology, Saunders Philadelphia.
20. Hoar, W.S., General and Comparative Physiology, Inc, New Jersev.
21. Sadar, M.H. and Smith, M.S., 1993. EIA Methods and Procedure. Impact
Assessment Institute, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
22. Smith, R.L., Ecology and Field Biology, Harper and Row.
23. Michael, I. Mckinney and Robert, m Schoch, 1998. Environmental
Science, Hones and Bartett Publisher, International.
24. Chapman, J.L and Reiss, M.J., 1997. Ecology (Principles and
applications), Cambridge University Press.
25. Kormodndy, E.J., 1996. Concepts of Ecology. Prentice Hall, India.
26. Eckert and Randall, Animal Physiology.
27. Odum, E.P., Fundamentals of Ecology. W.B. Saunders.
28. Macfadyen, Animal Ecology: Aims and Methods.
29. Prosser, C.L., Cooperative animal physiology. W.B. Saunders.
30. Hoar, W.S., General and Comparative Physiology. Prentice Hall Inc.
31. Nebel, B.J., Environmental Science. Prentice Hall Inc.
32. Can, A.J., Animal species and their evolution. Hutchjinson’s U.L. London.
33. Moody, P.A., Introduction to Evolution. Harper and Row.

Genetics:Evolution: Ecology:



Mendelian Principles, Multiple alleles, Interaction of genes, Linkage and
crossing over, maping of genes, Sex-determination and Sex-linkage, Mutations, gene
concept, Chromosomal aberrations, DNA as a genetic material, genetic Code, DNA
Recombinant Technology, Application of genetic Engineering, Transgenic animals.

Section –D


Theories of origin of Life, Biochemical origin of life, Lamarckism, Darwinism
and Neo-Darwinism, Hardy Weinberg Principle, Mutation Pressure, Selection Pressure,
Genetic drift species concept, Mechanism of evolution, modern concept of Natural
Selection, Adaptive radiation.



Concept of Ecosystem. Biogeochemical cycle, Animal adaptation to major
Habitats, Energy flow in the Ecosystem, Food chain, Food web, Productivity of
Ecosystem Environmental Pollution, Water Pollution and Lamo Pollution.

General Zoology,Cell Biology:General Physiology:

General Zoology

Cell Biology:

Generalized Structure of Prokayotic and Eukaryotic Cell, Morphology, chemical
composition and Functions of cellular organelles, Enzymes Catalysis, Regulation &
Inhibition, Metabolic Pathways,Glycolysis, Kreb cycle and Electrons Transport chain.
Nucleic acid, Mechanism of Protein synthesis, Transcription and Translation, Mitosis,


General Physiology:

Excretion and Homeostasis, osmoregulation, vertebrate nephrone as osmoregulatory
organ, Thermoregulation in Animals, Movements and Muscle, ultra structure of Muscle
fibril, mechanism of contraction, Physiological anatomy of digestive Tract, Potential and
movement in Gastrointestinal Tract, Respiration, Respiratory Mechanism, Respiratory
Pigments, Transport of O2 and Co2; cardiovascular Mechanism, electrical activity of
Heart, Blood Pressure, Coordination in animals, Nervous coordination and chemical
coordination, Nervous system, nerve Impulses, Harmones and their Biological action.
Mechanism of Active membrane Potential and Resting membrane Potential,



1. Barrington E. J. W., 1969 Invertebrate Structure and Function. The English
Language Book Society and Nelson London.
2. Willmer,P. 1991 Invertebrate Relationships (pattern in animal evolution) Cambridge
University Press.
3. Barnes, R.D.(1980). Invertebrate Zoology (4th ed.), Saunders, Philadelphia.
4. Hegner and Engemann. Invertebrate Zoology Macmillan Publishing Company Inc,
New York.
5. Parker and Haswell. A Text Book of Zoology. (Vol.!) Macmillan London.
6. Borredaile, L.A., Potts, F.A. Eastham, L.E.S., Saunders, J.T. and Kerkut, G.A.
(1961). The Invertebrata. Cambridge University Press.
7. Hyman L.H, The Invertebrates. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.
8. Bhatti, H.K. and Hashmi, T .H. Invertebrate Zoology Caravan Book Corporation,
9. Dhami and Dhami. Comparative Invertebrate Morphology.
10.F. Harvey Pough, John, Bheiser, William N. Mcfarland Vertebrate life. 2nd Edition,
1985., and 3rd Edition, 1990.
11. G.C. Kent, 1987. Comparative Anatomy of vertebrates.
12.Yong, J. Z. 1965. The life of Mammals.
13.Young, J.Z. 1981. The Life of Vertebrate.
14.Romer & Parson, The vertebrate body. 6th Edition.
15.Edwin H Colbert. 1980. Evolution of the verttbrates. 3rd edition.
16.Miller. A.S. and Harley. J.B., (1999) & 2002; Zoology. 4th &5th Edition (International).
Singapore: McGraw Hill.
17.Hickman, C.P., Roberts. L.S. and Larson. A. 2001. Integrated Principles of Zoology.
11 th Edition (International). Singapore: McGraw Hill Pechenik, J .A. (2002) Biology
of Invertebrate. 4th Edition (International). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
18.Campbell, N.A. (2002). Biology Sixth Edition. Menlo Park. California:
Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Inc.

Chordata:Amphibian:Reptile: Aves:Mammalia:


Origin and basic plan of chordate, basic plane of vertebvrate body,
Earliest known vertebrate, Primitive jawed vertebrate, Evolution of
jaw in vertebrate, Swimblader in Fishes, Excretion and


First terrestrial vertebrates:
Evolutionary perspective, Excretion and Osmoregulation,
Reproduction and development.


The First Amniotes
Evoluion of Reptile, Rise and Fall of Reptile, Extinction of
Dinosaurs, Exeretion and Osmoragulation, Poisonous apparatus
and biting mechanism of poisonous snake.


Birds, Feathers, Flight and Endothermy:
Phylogenetic Relationship and evolution of Birds, Evolution of flight
in Aves, Aerial adaptation and Migration of Birds.


Specialized teeth, Endothermy:
Origin of mammals, Evolutionary perspectives, Diversity among
mammals, adaptation in External Structure and Locomotion,
vertebrate Excretion, osmoregulation, Reproduction and
development, Dentition in vertebrae, Comparative account of
Evolution of Heart, gridles Skull, development, nervous system,
Stomach in the vertebrate and urinogenital ducts in vertebrates;



Skeletion, Water vascular System, Larval farms and their
evolutionary significance, Phylogenetic Consideration.

Nematoda,Ammelida: Mollusca: Arthropoda:


The Pseudocoelomate Body Plan:
(Aschelminthes): Evolutionary Perspective, General characteristic, Economic
Importance. Parasitic Nematodes of man.


The Metameric Body Form:
Evolutionary relationship with other animals, Metamerism and
Tagmatization, Phylogenctic Consideration.


Origin of Coelome, Diversity in Gastropods, Bivalve and
Cepholopods, Torsion, shell in Mollusca, modification of foot in


Ebolutionary Perspeetive, Metamarphosis, Ecdysis, Appendages
feeding, Respiration, Social insect, Economic Importance of
Insects, Larvae in various Classes of Arthropoda.

Coelenterata: Platyhelmenthes:


Boy wall and Nematocysts, Polymorphism, Coral and Coral reefs,
Economic Importance of Coral reefs.


The Triploblastic Acoelomate Body plan: Evolutionary perspective,
Parasitic adaptation, life cycle of Fasciola Hepatica (liver fluke)



Boy wall and Nematocysts, Polymorphism, Coral and Coral reefs,
Economic Importance of Coral reefs.


Porifera: Mullticellular and Tissue level of organization: origin and
Evolutionary perspeetive, Evolutions of canal system, skeleton and
Reproductive System in Porifera.



Animal – like Protists:
Origin and Phylogenetic relationship of protozoa, parasitism,
Locomotion, Nutrition, Reproduction, Economic Importance and
Harmful Protozoa.


Introduction General organizations (Structure, function, mode of
life, Reproduction, life cycles, adaptation, distribution and Economic
Importance) of the Following groups with special reference to the
Topic mentioned in each group:-

Saturday, March 7, 2009


Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, "logos", "knowledge") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of animals.
1 Name
2 Systems of classification
3 Subfields of zoology
4 Notable zoologists
5 See also
6 Sources and external links
7 References

The pronunciation of "zoology" is /zoʊˈɑləʤɪ/; however, an alternative pronunciation is /zuˈɑləʤɪ/.[1] The word zoology originates from the Greek zōon, meaning animal, and logos, meaning study. an example of a sub ology is herpetology-the study of snakes.

Systems of classification
Main article: Scientific classification

Linnaeus's table of the Animal Kingdom from the first edition of Systema Naturae (1735).
Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time. (1) The museum-makers of old days and their modern representatives the curators and describers of zoological collections, (2) early explorers and modern naturalist travelers and writers comprise zoo-geography, and (3) collectors of fossils and palaeontologists are the chief varieties of zoological workers coming under this heading. Gradually, since the time of Hunter and Cuvier, anatomical study has associated itself with the more superficial morphography until today no one considers a study of animal form of any value which does not include internal structure, histology and embryology in its scope.

Subfields of zoology
The study of animal life is, of course, ancient: but as 'zoology' it is relatively modern, for what we call biology was known as 'natural history' at the start of the nineteenth century. During the lifetime of Charles Darwin, natural history turned from a gentlemanly pursuit to a modern scientific activity. Zoology as we know it was first established in German and British universities. The institution of zoology training in British universities was mainly established by Thomas Henry Huxley. His ideas were centered on the morphology of animals: he himself is considered by many to have been the greatest comparative anatomist of the second half of the nineteenth century. His courses were composed of lectures and laboratory practical classes; and his system became widely spread.
There was much left out by Huxley, especially the study of animals in their environment, which had been the main stimulus for both Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace (who both came up with the idea of natural selection). The fact that neither Darwin nor Wallace ever held a university teaching post may have contributed to this rather startling omission. Gradually Huxley's comparative anatomy was supplemented by other much-needed methods. The field of zoology in the twentieth century mainly comprised these approaches:
Comparative anatomy studies the structure of animals.
The physiology of animals is studied under various fields including anatomy and embryology
The common genetic and developmental mechanisms of animals and plants is studied in molecular biology, molecular genetics and developmental biology
Ethology is the study of animal behavior.
The ecology of animals is covered under behavioral ecology and other fields
Evolutionary biology of both animals and plants is considered in the articles on evolution, population genetics, heredity, variation, Mendelism, reproduction.
Systematics, cladistics, phylogenetics, phylogeography, biogeography and taxonomy classify and group species via common descent and regional associations.
The various taxonomically-oriented disciplines such as mammalogy, herpetology, ornithology identify and classify species, and study the structures and mechanisms specific to those groups. Entomology is the study of insects, by far the largest group of animals.
Palaeontology, including all that may be learnt of ancient environments.

Notable zoologists
Main article: List of zoologists
In alphabetical order by surname:
Louis Agassiz (malacology, ichthyology)
David Attenborough
Henry Walter Bates (Batesian mimicry, Amazon)
Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre
Rachel Carson (marine biologist)
Archie Carr (Herpetology, esp. sea turtles)
Archie Carr III, (wild mammals)
Eugenie Clark (Ichthyology)
Jeff Corwin (herpetology)
Georges Cuvier (founder of comparative morphology)
Charles Darwin (theory of evolution, natural selection, sexual selection)
Richard Dawkins (ethology, evolutionary biology)
James R. Dixon (Herpetology)
William Flower (mammals)
Edmund Brisco Ford (ecological genetics)
Dian Fossey (primatology)
Birutė Galdikas (primatology)
Jane Goodall (primatology)
Ernst Haeckel (marine biologist), (naturalist)
Victor Hensen (planktology)
Bernard Heuvelmans (cryptozoology)
Julian Huxley (evolutionary synthesis, humanism, World Wildlife Fund, UNESCO)
Thomas Henry Huxley (evolution, agnosticism, science education
William Kirby (father of entomology)
Hans-Wilhelm Koepcke (ornithology, herpetology)
E. Ray Lankester (zoology and comparative anatomy)
Carolus Linnaeus (father of systematics; primarily a botanist)
Konrad Lorenz (ethology)
David W. Macdonald (wild mammals)
John Maynard Smith (evolutionary biology, genetics)
Ernst Mayr (evolutionary biology)
Fritz Müller (evolutionary biology, Müllerian mimicry, Brazil)
Desmond Morris (ethology)
Richard Owen (vertebrate palaeontology, dinosaurs, Natural History Museum)
Roger Tory Peterson (ornithology)
Eric Pianka (herpetologist)
William Emerson Ritter (marine biology)
Thomas Say (entomology)
Shen Kuo (medieval Chinese zoologist)
Su Song (medieval Chinese zoologist)
Dave Salmoni
ll (animal behavior, invertebrate zoology)
Ernst Freiherr von Blomberg (anthrozoology and religion)
Alfred Russel Wallace (natural selection, zoogeography, animal colouration, Amazon, East Indies)
E.O. Wilson (entomology, especially ants, founder of sociobiology)
Robert Broom
Austin Stevens (herpetology, especially snakes
Saravana and other serpents.

See also
Zoological distribution
Zootomy - the study of animal anatomy or animal dissection
Cryptozoology - the study of animals who currently fall outside the parameters of zoology
Paleontology - the study life in the past
Oceanography - the study of the oceans
Entomology - the area of biology that studies insects
Malacology and conchology, the study of mollusks, and their shells
Botany - the area of biology that studies plants
List of zoologists
Important Publications in Zoology
Animals in Buddhism
Islam and animals
Timeline of zoology
History of zoology (through 1859)