Sunday, November 15, 2009

Foraminifera,Mycetozoa,Myxogastridia and Dictyostelida

Foraminifera (forams)
Forams are all marine
Named for their porous shells
Hardened with calcium carbonate
Mycetozoa (Slime Molds)
Mycetozoa “fungus animals”
They decompose leaf litter like fungi
But they are not fungi
Use pseudopodia for movement
Two distinct groups
Plasmodial slime mold
Cellular slime mold
Myxogastridia (Plasmodial Slime Mold)
Most are brightly colored
All are heterotrophic
Life cycle contains:
Feeding stage (mobile)
Large mass of unicellular organisms that is not separate by cell walls
Fruiting body (not mobile)
Dictyostelida: Cellular Slime Mold
Feeding stage consists of individual cells
When food is scarce form an aggregate that functions as a unit

Rhodophyta its habits, Chlorophyta, and Rhizopoda

Rhodophyta: Red Algae
Have no flagellated life cycle stage
Not all are red
Most are multicellular
Also called seaweeds

Habit of Rhodophyta
l      Red aglae- lack flagellated stages in life cycle
l      Phycoerythin pigment
l      Marine and multicellular
l      Filamentous, delicately branched thalli (body)
l      Alternation of generations

Chlorophyta: (green algae)
Probably gave rise to land plants
Most are fresh water algae

l      Green algae –
l      have chloroplasts that resemble those of plants
l      Plants and green algae share common ancestor
l      Mostly fresh water
l      May be planktonic, inhabitants of damp soil, symbionts in other eukaryotes, or mutualistic partners with fungi (lichens)
l      Formation of colonies, repeated nuclear divisions to produce multinucleated filaments, and cell division and differentiation
l      Sexual and asexual staged life cycles
l      Some have alternation of generations

Diversity of protists use pseudopodia for movement
Most are heterotrophs and use pseuodpods to hunt for food
Unsure of their place in a phylogenetic tree
Rhizopoda (amoebas)
Actinopoda (heliozoans and radiolarians)
Actinopod means “ray foot”
Extensions of slender pseudopods
Heliozoans –
Fresh water habitat
Skeletons consist of silica


Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
Unique glasslike walls consisting of silica
Used in toothpastes and polishes

Detail of these topics is given in this link 

Chrysophyta (golden algae)
Named for their color
Typically biflagellated
Live among freshwater and marine plankton
Most are unicellular
Phaeophyta (brown algae)
Largest and most complex algae
All are multicellular
Called seaweeds

Alveolata,Dinoflagellata,Apicomplexa,Cilliophora (cilliates) and Stramenopila

Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates
All contain membrane bounded cavities (alveoli)
Abundant components of phytoplankton
Some are also heterotrophic
Contain plates of cellulose armor
Two or more flagella propel the protist
Cause Red tides
Pfiesteria piscicida is carnivorous
All are parasites of animals
Cilliophora (cilliates)
All use cilia to move around
Among the most complex of all cells
Includes heterotrophic groups as well as photosynthetic organismsAll have numerous fine, hairlike projections on the flagella


Contain flagellated Euglenoids and kinetoplastids
Mostly autotrophic
Contain mitochondria
And extranuclear DNA housed in a kinetoplast

l      Includes both photosynthetic and heterotrophic flagellates
l      Euglenoids- one or two flagella that emerge from an anterior chamber; storage of polymer paramylon.
l      Chlorophyll; lack cell walls
l      Some have a red eyespot

l      Kinetoplastid- single large mitochondrion that contains extranuclear DNA

Diplomonadida and Parabasala

Group that lacks mitochondria
Evolved before eukaryotes acquired mitochondria. But recent evidence may suggest that these groups actually lost their mitochondria
Multiple flagella.

Unicellular, flagellated, no chloroplasts or mitochondria
Anaerobic, use fermentation
Mutualistic or parasitic
Diplo’s have 2 nuclei (ex. Giardia)
Para’s have 1nuclei (ex. Trichomonas)

Giardia lamblia
Trichomona vaginalis
Two separate nuclei
l      Main Characteristic: Lack Mitochondria
l      However-presence of mitochondrial genes
l      Hypothesis that these groups lost mitochondria after diverged earliest in eukaryotic history
l      Diplomonads- i.e. Giardia lambia (intestinal parasite)-two nuclei, multiple flagella, simple cytoskeleton, no mitochondria or plastids

l      Parabasalids- called trichomonads, undulating membrane

Protistan Habitats,Origin of Eukaryotes,Endosymbiosis

Protistan Habitats
Most are aquatic. Make up plankton. Swim near waters surface. Some are symbiotic. From mutualism to parasitism. Malaria agent is protistan

Origin of Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes arise due to membrane bound nucleus, Endomembrane system, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Cytoskeleton, Multiple linear chromosomes and Complex life cycles

Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes through gradually increasing levels of complexity. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts share prokaryotic characteristics. Circular DNA. Replicate through binary fission

Motility and Life Cycle

Motility and Life Cycle
Most protists have cilia or flagella. Flagella are different in eukaryotic organisms than in prokaryotic organism. Mitosis occurs in almost all protists. Protists have complex life cycles. Some reproduce asexually


Protests are nutritionally diverse. Some are photoautotroph., heterotrophy and some are mixotrophs. Although nutrition is not used to classify protists.

Groups of Nutrition
We can split protists into three main groups.
1. Protozoa – animal like
2. Fungus like protits
3. Alga – plant like


Introduction to Protists
Most protests are unicellular. Some are complex multicultural like the seaweeds. The 5 Kingdom system doesn’t work for Protests either. We classified protests based on they were eukaryotic but not plants, animals, or fungi.

Diversity of Protests
Recent systematic studies have split the once 1 kingdom Protest into many kingdoms. Protests are very complex. They must carry out all the requirements of life in a single cell

Organizations for Breeding

Organizations for Breeding
Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Australia,
Roslin Institute, Scotland,
Animal Breeding, Genetics & Genomics, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, USA,
Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, USA,
Animal Genetics and Breeding Unit, Australia,

Journals for Breeding

Journals for Breeding

Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, ISSN 0931-2668,

Academic centers for Breeding

Academic centers for Breeding

Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, Netherlands,
Animal Breeding and Genetics Group, University of Georgia, USA,
Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, University of Guelph, Canada,
Animal Breeding & Genetics, Cornell University, USA,
Animal Breeding & Genetics, Iowa State University, USA,
Breeding and Genetics Program, Colorado State University, USA,
Animal Genetics and Breeding Unit, University of New England, Australia,

External links for Breeding

External links for Breeding
Animal Breeding - The Genetic Basis Of Animal Breeding, Economic Considerations, Modern Methods In Biotechnology, Artificial Insemination,
Guidelines For Uniform Swine Improvement Programs, National Swine Improvement Federation, 2003,

References For Breeding

References For Breeding

Evans JW. Horse Breeding and Management, p. 228.
Backyard breeders: The elephant in the room. Examiner.
Rescue groups paint a sad story of Iowa’s puppy mills. The Messenger.

Honors and awards for Breeding

Honors and awards for Breeding

National Association of Animal Breeders Award, American Dairy Science Association
Jay L. Lush Animal Breeding and Genetics Award, American Dairy Science Association
Since 1982
Fellowship of Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Since 1990
[edit] References
Lush, JL (1937). Animal Breeding Plans. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press.
Kempthorne, O (1957). Introduction to Statistic Genetics. John Wiley & Sons.
Van Vleck, L. D., & Searle, S. R. (1979). Variance components and animal breeding: proceedings of a conference in honor of C.R. Henderson. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University.
Henderson, CR (1984). Applications of linear models in animal breeding. Guelph, Ont: University of Guelph. ISBN 0-88955-030-1.
Hammond K. Gianola, D (1990). Advances in Statistical Methods for Genetic Improvement of Livestock (Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences). Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K. ISBN 3-540-50809-0.
Massey, JW and Vogt, DW (1993), Heritability and Its Use in Animal Breeding, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri,
Mrode, R. A. (1996). Linear models for the prediction of animal breeding values. Oxon: CAB International. ISBN 0-85198-996-9.
Cameron, N. D. (1997). Selection indices and prediction of genetic merit in animal breeding. Oxon: CAB International. ISBN 0-85199-169-6.

Purebred breeding

Purebred breeding Definition

Mating animals of the same breed for maintaining such breed is referred to as purebred breeding.

Purebred breeding Explanation

Opposite to the practice of mating animals of different breeds, purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits, that animals will pass to the next generation. By "breeding the best to the best," employing a certain degree of inbreeding, considerable culling, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline or "breed" superior in certain respects to the original base stock.
Such animals can be recorded with a breed registry, the organisation that maintains pedigrees and/or stud books.
The observable phenomenon of hybrid vigor stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity.

Breeding stock

Breeding stock Definition

"Breeding stock" is used to describe a group of animals used for purpose of planned breeding.

Breeding stock Explanation

When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred animals, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, when breeding swine the "breeding stock should be sound, fast growing, muscular, lean, and reproductively efficient. The "subjective selection of breeding stock" in horses has led to many horse breeds with particular performance traits.

Types of breeding

Types of breeding

  • Breeding stock
  • Purebred breeding

Animal breeding

Animal breeding

Animal breeding Definition

Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation of the genetic value of domestic livestock.

Animal breeding Explanation

Selecting animals for breeding in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or have other desirable traits has revolutionized agricultural livestock production throughout the world. The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics and statistics.